Detail for Fluconazole
Basic Information
DrugID 50
DrugName Fluconazole
DrugDetail Fluconazole is a triazole antifungal drug used in the treatment and prevention of superficial and systemic fungal infections. In a bulk powder form, it appears as a white crystalline powder, and it is very slightly soluble in water and soluble in alcohol. It is commonly marketed under the trade name Diflucan or Trican (Pfizer). In Mexico it is sold over the counter as Alfumet, Afungil or Dofil. It is marketed under the brand name Candivast in the Persian Gulf area.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluconazole

Indication For the treatment of fungal infections.

http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00196

Structure Click to see the orginal picture.
Interaction
Drug Name PMIDLink Reference
Acetic acid Moosa MY, Sobel JD, Elhalis H, Du W, Akins RA. (2004) Fungicidal activity ofagainst Candida albicans in a synthetic vagina-simulative medium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 48(1):161-7.
Amiodarone Gamarra S, Rocha EM, Zhang YQ, Park S, Rao R, Perlin DS. (2010) Mechanism of the synergistic effect of amiodarone andin Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 54(5):1753-61.
Amiodarone Guo Q, Sun S, Li Y, Yu J, Shi C. (2008) In vitro interactions between azoles and amiodarone against clinical Candida albicans. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 31(1):88-90.
Anidulafungin Roling EE, Klepser ME, Wasson A, Lewis RE, Ernst EJ, Pfaller MA. (2002) Antifungal activities of fluconazole, caspofungin (MK0991), and anidulafungin (LY 303366) alone and in combination against Candida spp. and Crytococcus neoformans via time-kill methods. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 43(1):13-7.
Cetylpyridinium chloride Edlind MP, Smith WL, Edlind TD. (2005) Effects of cetylpyridinium chloride resistance and treatment onactivity versus Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 49(2):843-5.
Cyclosporine Kontoyiannis DP, Lewis RE, Alexander BD, Lortholary O, Dromer F, Gupta KL, John GT, Del Busto R, Klintmalm GB, Somani J, Lyon GM, Pursell K, Stosor V, Munoz P, Limaye AP, Kalil AC, Pruett TL, Garcia-Diaz J, Humar A, Houston S, House AA, Wray D, Orloff S, Dowdy LA, Fisher RA, Heitman J, Albert ND, Wagener MM, Singh N. (2008) Calcineurin inhibitor agents interact synergistically with antifungal agents in vitro against Cryptococcus neoformans isolates: correlation with outcome in solid organ transplant recipients with cryptococcosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 52(2):735-8.
Defensin NP-1 Alcouloumre MS, Ghannoum MA, Ibrahim AS, Selsted ME, Edwards JE Jr. (1993) Fungicidal properties of defensin NP-1 and activity against Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 37(12):2628-32.
Deferiprone Zarember KA, Cruz AR, Huang CY, Gallin JI. (2009) Antifungal activities of natural and synthetic iron chelators alone and in combination with azole and polyene antibiotics against Aspergillus fumigatus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 53(6):2654-6.
Dodecapeptide Duggineni S, Srivastava G, Kundu B, Kumar M, Chaturvedi AK, Shukla PK. (2007) A novel dodecapeptide from a combinatorial synthetic library exhibits potent antifungal activity and synergy with standard antimycotic agents. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 29(1):73-8.
Doxycycline Miceli MH, Bernardo SM, Lee SA. (2009) In vitro analyses of the combination of high-dose doxycycline and antifungal agents against Candida albicans biofilms. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 34(4):326-32.
DU-6859a Nakajima R, Kitamura A, Someya K, Tanaka M, Sato K. (1995) In vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of DU-6859a, a fluoroquinolone, in combination with amphotericin B andagainst pathogenic fungi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 39(7):1517-21.
Ethambutol Cordeiro Rde A, Brilhante RS, Rocha MF, Medrano DJ, Monteiro AJ, Tavares JL, de Lima RA, de Camargo ZP, Sidrim JJ. (2009) In vitro synergistic effects of antituberculous drugs plus antifungals against Coccidioides posadasii. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 34(3):278-80.
Flucytosine Schwarz P, Dromer F, Lortholary O, Dannaoui E. (2003) In vitro interaction of flucytosine with conventional and new antifungals against Cryptococcus neoformans clinical isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 47(10):3361-4.
Flucytosine Nguyen MH, Barchiesi F, McGough DA, Yu VL, Rinaldi MG. (1995) In vitro evaluation of combination ofand flucytosine against Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 39(8):1691-5.
Fluvastatin Chin NX, Weitzman I, Della-Latta P. (1997) In vitro activity of fluvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering agent, and synergy with flucanazole and itraconazole against Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 41(4):850-2.
Ibuprofen Scott EM, Tariq VN, McCrory RM. (1995) Demonstration of synergy withand either ibuprofen, sodium salicylate, or propylparaben against Candida albicans in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 39(12):2610-4.
Lactoferrin-derived peptide hLF Lupetti A, Paulusma-Annema A, Welling MM, Dogterom-Ballering H, Brouwer CP, Senesi S, Van Dissel JT, Nibbering PH. (2003) Synergistic activity of the N-terminal peptide of human lactoferrin andagainst Candida species. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 47(1):262-7.
Nikkomycin X Hector RF, Schaller K. (1992) Positive interaction of nikkomycins and azoles against Candida albicans in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 36(6):1284-9.
Nikkomycin Z Hector RF, Schaller K. (1992) Positive interaction of nikkomycins and azoles against Candida albicans in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 36(6):1284-9.
nitric oxide McElhaney-Feser GE, Raulli RE, Cihlar RL. (1998) Synergy of nitric oxide and azoles against Candida species in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 42(9):2342-6.
Propylparaben Scott EM, Tariq VN, McCrory RM. (1995) Demonstration of synergy withand either ibuprofen, sodium salicylate, or propylparaben against Candida albicans in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 39(12):2610-4.
Pyrazinamide Cordeiro Rde A, Brilhante RS, Rocha MF, Medrano DJ, Monteiro AJ, Tavares JL, de Lima RA, de Camargo ZP, Sidrim JJ. (2009) In vitro synergistic effects of antituberculous drugs plus antifungals against Coccidioides posadasii. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 34(3):278-80.
Rapamycin Kontoyiannis DP, Lewis RE, Alexander BD, Lortholary O, Dromer F, Gupta KL, John GT, Del Busto R, Klintmalm GB, Somani J, Lyon GM, Pursell K, Stosor V, Munoz P, Limaye AP, Kalil AC, Pruett TL, Garcia-Diaz J, Humar A, Houston S, House AA, Wray D, Orloff S, Dowdy LA, Fisher RA, Heitman J, Albert ND, Wagener MM, Singh N. (2008) Calcineurin inhibitor agents interact synergistically with antifungal agents in vitro against Cryptococcus neoformans isolates: correlation with outcome in solid organ transplant recipients with cryptococcosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 52(2):735-8.
Sodium Salicylate Scott EM, Tariq VN, McCrory RM. (1995) Demonstration of synergy withand either ibuprofen, sodium salicylate, or propylparaben against Candida albicans in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 39(12):2610-4.
FK506 Kontoyiannis DP, Lewis RE, Alexander BD, Lortholary O, Dromer F, Gupta KL, John GT, Del Busto R, Klintmalm GB, Somani J, Lyon GM, Pursell K, Stosor V, Munoz P, Limaye AP, Kalil AC, Pruett TL, Garcia-Diaz J, Humar A, Houston S, House AA, Wray D, Orloff S, Dowdy LA, Fisher RA, Heitman J, Albert ND, Wagener MM, Singh N. (2008) Calcineurin inhibitor agents interact synergistically with antifungal agents in vitro against Cryptococcus neoformans isolates: correlation with outcome in solid organ transplant recipients with cryptococcosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 52(2):735-8.
Terbinafine Cavalheiro AS, Maboni G, de Azevedo MI, Argenta JS, Pereira DI, Spader TB, Alves SH, Santurio JM. (2009) In Vitro activity of terbinafine combined with caspofungin and azoles against Pythium insidiosum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 53(5):2136-8.
Allicin Guo N., Wu X.P., Yu L., Liu J.B., Meng R.Z., Jin J., Lu H.J., Wang X.L., Yan S.H., Deng X.M. (2010) In vitro and in vivo interactions betweenand allicin against clinical isolates of fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans determined by alternative methods. Fems Immunology and Medical Microbiology 58:193-201. DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2009.00620.x.
Alverine citrate Jansen G., Lee A.Y., Epp E., Fredette A., Surprenant J., Harcus D., Scott M., Tan E., Nishimura T., Whiteway M., Hallett M., Thomas D.Y. (2009) Chemogenomic profiling predicts antifungal synergies. Molecular Systems Biology 5. DOI: 10.1038/msb.2009.95.
Amitriptyline Marchetti O., Moreillon P., Glauser M.P., Bille J., Sanglard D. (2000) Potent synergism of the combination ofand cyclosporine in Candida albicans. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 44:2373-2381.
Berberine Quan H., Cao Y.Y., Xu Z., Zhao J.X., Gao P.H., Qin X.F., Jiang Y.Y. (2006) Potent in vitro synergism ofand berberine chloride against clinical isolates of Candida albicans resistant to fluconazole. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 50:1096-1099. DOI: 10.1128/aac.50.3.1096-1099.2006.
Caspofungin Jansen G., Lee A.Y., Epp E., Fredette A., Surprenant J., Harcus D., Scott M., Tan E., Nishimura T., Whiteway M., Hallett M., Thomas D.Y. (2009) Chemogenomic profiling predicts antifungal synergies. Molecular Systems Biology 5. DOI: 10.1038/msb.2009.95.
Chlorpromazine Marchetti O., Moreillon P., Glauser M.P., Bille J., Sanglard D. (2000) Potent synergism of the combination ofand cyclosporine in Candida albicans. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 44:2373-2381.
Clomipramine Marchetti O., Moreillon P., Glauser M.P., Bille J., Sanglard D. (2000) Potent synergism of the combination ofand cyclosporine in Candida albicans. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 44:2373-2381.
Fenpropimorph Jansen G., Lee A.Y., Epp E., Fredette A., Surprenant J., Harcus D., Scott M., Tan E., Nishimura T., Whiteway M., Hallett M., Thomas D.Y. (2009) Chemogenomic profiling predicts antifungal synergies. Molecular Systems Biology 5. DOI: 10.1038/msb.2009.95.
Flucytosine Nguyen M.H., Najvar L.K., Yu C.Y., Graybill J.R. (1997) Combination therapy withand flucytosine in the murine model of Cryptococcal meningitis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 41:1120-1123.
Latrunculin A Jansen G., Lee A.Y., Epp E., Fredette A., Surprenant J., Harcus D., Scott M., Tan E., Nishimura T., Whiteway M., Hallett M., Thomas D.Y. (2009) Chemogenomic profiling predicts antifungal synergies. Molecular Systems Biology 5. DOI: 10.1038/msb.2009.95.
Lovastatin Song J.L., Lyons C.N., Holleman S., Oliver B.G., White T.C. (2003) Antifungal activity ofin combination with lovastatin and their effects on gene expression in the ergosterol and prenylation pathways in Candida albicans. Medical Mycology 41:417-425. DOI: 10.1080/1369378031000137233.
Micafungin NISHI I., SUNADA A., TOYOKAWA M., et al. In vitro antifungal combination effects of micafungin with fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and flucytosine against clinical isolates of Candida species
Ofloxacin Sasaki E., Maesaki S., Miyazaki Y., Yanagihara K., Tomono K., Tashiro T., Kohno S. (2000) Synergistic effect of ofloxacin andagainst azole-resistant Candida albicans. J Infect Chemother 6:151-4.
Phenazopyridine Borisy A.A., Elliott P.J., Hurst N.W., Lee M.S., Lehar J., Price E.R., Serbedzija G., Zimmermann G.R., Foley M.A., Stockwell B.R., Keith C.T. (2003) Systematic discovery of multicomponent therapeutics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100:7977-7982. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1337088100.
Retigeric acid B Sun L.M., Sun S.J., Cheng A.X., Wu X.Z., Zhang Y., Lou H.X. (2009) In Vitro Activities of Retigeric Acid B Alone and in Combination with Azole Antifungal Agents against Candida albicans. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 53:1586-1591. DOI: 10.1128/aac.00940-08.
Terbinafine Lehar J., Zimmermann G.R., Krueger A.S., Molnar R.A., Ledell J.T., Heilbut A.M., Short G.F., Giusti L.C., Nolan G.P., Magid O.A., Lee M.S., Borisy A.A., Stockwell B.R., Keith C.T. (2007) Chemical combination effects predict connectivity in biological systems. Molecular Systems Biology 3. DOI: 10.1038/msb4100116.
Wortmannin Jansen G., Lee A.Y., Epp E., Fredette A., Surprenant J., Harcus D., Scott M., Tan E., Nishimura T., Whiteway M., Hallett M., Thomas D.Y. (2009) Chemogenomic profiling predicts antifungal synergies. Molecular Systems Biology 5. DOI: 10.1038/msb.2009.95.
Methyleugenol Ahmad A., Khan A., Khan L.A., Manzoor N. (2010) In vitro synergy of eugenol and methyleugenol withagainst clinical Candida isolates. Journal of Medical Microbiology 59:1178-1184. DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.020693-0
Eugenol Ahmad A., Khan A., Khan L.A., Manzoor N. (2010) In vitro synergy of eugenol and methyleugenol withagainst clinical Candida isolates. Journal of Medical Microbiology 59:1178-1184. DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.020693-0
Cyclosporine A Jansen G., Lee A.Y., Epp E., Fredette A., Surprenant J., Harcus D., Scott M., Tan E., Nishimura T., Whiteway M., Hallett M., Thomas D.Y. (2009) Chemogenomic profiling predicts antifungal synergies. Molecular Systems Biology 5. DOI: 10.1038/msb.2009.95.
Target
TargetName References EssentialGene? Link
(R)-limonene 6-monooxygenase No
Albendazole monooxygenase No
Aromatase Yes
Chymotrypsinogen A No
CYPIA2 Yes
CYPIIC8 No
CYPIIIA5 No
CYPLI No
CYPXIB1 No
Heme oxygenase 1 Yes
Heme oxygenase 2 No
Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase No
Malate dehydrogenase, cytoplasmic No
Cytochrome P450 51 No
sterol 14alpha-demethylase ihibitor No
PathWay
PathWay Name Path Picture
Steroid biosynthesis - Reference pathway (KO)